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中国国内有些同学认为博士生就叫 PhD candidate,但维基百科:完成所有课程和综合....

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发表于 2020-4-13 10:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
中国国内有些同学认为博士生就叫  PhD candidate,但维基百科:A student who has completed all their coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes known as a doctoral candidate or PhD candidate (see: all but dissertation)
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A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin philosophiae doctor or doctor philosophiae) is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are usually required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields.[1] Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated "Dr" or "Dr.") with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation."[2] Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil" (depending on the awarding institution). It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.[3]

The specific requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. During the studies that lead to the degree, the student is called a doctoral student or PhD student; a student who has completed all their coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes known as a doctoral candidate or PhD candidate (see: all but dissertation). A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions or may be granted a master's degree en route to the doctoral degree. Sometimes this status is also colloquially known as "PhD ABD," meaning "All But Dissertation."[4]

A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis, or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal.[5] In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university. Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) for music performers and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) for professional educators. In 2005 the European Universities Association defined the "Salzburg Principles," 10 basic principles for third-cycle degrees (doctorates) within the Bologna Process.[6] These were followed in 2016 by the "Florence Principles," seven basic principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic Research.[7]

In some countries like China and Japan, a recipient of doctorate in disciplines such as engineering and pharmacy where professional degrees (for example, EngD and PharmD) are usually awarded in the western countries, is called a PhD regardless. It is not uncommon that the person's title or diploma be translated into English as PhD in (that discipline).[8] In these countries, the distinction between professional doctorates and PhDs is less significant.[9]

In the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom." In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/sciences)[10] other than theology, law, and medicine (the so-called professional, vocational, or technical curriculum) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy."
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-4-13 12:00 | 显示全部楼层
https://www.acacon.cn/acainfo/acaview/docstudentname.html
在美国PHD candidate是指已完成博士学位的所有课程等学业要求,但还未完成毕业论文的博士研究生。因此,PHD属于高阶段的PHD student。
在荷兰,PHD candidate是指大学聘用的教职工。
在英国,如果你是在读固定年份的博士项目,那么PHD candidate与PHD student并没有多大区别。
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https://www.acacon.cn/acainfo/acaview/docstudentname.html
“博士研究生”该如何叫?并不是都叫PHD candidate
2019-04-14 分类:学术观察 / 资讯 阅读(1275)        评论(0)
博士研究生的英文名是什么?有人认为应该叫PHD candidate。然而,西方也存在PHD student与PHD researcher的说法。这三种名称都可以使用,但其含义却并不相同,在不同时间段或不同场合换用这三种称呼会产生不同的印象。

在美国,PHD candidate是指已完成博士学位的所有课程等学业要求,但还未完成毕业论文的博士研究生。因此,PHD属于高阶段的PHD student。

在荷兰,PHD candidate是指大学聘用的教职工。而在英国,如果你是在读固定年份的博士项目,那么PHD candidate与PHD student并没有多大区别。



总体而言,这些名称的差别还体现上博士生对自身的一种态度。你说自己是PHD student可以表示谦虚以及终生学习的态度,但也让妨碍你实现独立科研的身份。student(学生)表明你的学生身份,作为学生你要承受的学业要求,虽然你有高质量的资源和网络从事研究。

PHD candidate就属于比较独立的研究者,因为candidate一词表示,必须经过某种形式的考察才能认定为candidate(候选人)。不过,candidate算比较中性的词语,并没有表明某种特别的身份。

而PHD researcher似乎有点自负,但确实能够对你产生约束感和压力感,让你意识到需要承担的责任,坚定研究项目的决心。

有学者认为,采用PHD student似乎会让培养单位轻视博士生的贡献和能力,从而导致培养单位减少对博士生的支持力度。

在国外期刊投稿中,中国博士生很多采用PHD candidate,而采用PHD researcher的很少。其实,这三种称呼在国外也是处于相当混乱的状态。到底怎么用并没有规程。也就是说,怎么用取决于你如何看待自己。
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